Brain inflammation causes are various and here there are some of the conditions that may cause inflammation in brain. Commonly, this condition is caused by brain infections and it is called cerebritis. Inflammation of the brain is mainly caused by brain abscesses, meningitis, encephalitis and vasculitis.
One of the common causes of brain inflammation is the abscesses. They can be fungal, bacterial or cysticercosis. Bacterial abscesses may be caused by nearby infections such as ear, paranasal sinuses or mastoids infections. Commonly, the bacterial abscess is caused by staphylococcus and streptococcus. However, in as much as 20% of cases, the source of infection is not detected. They may also be caused by congenital heart diseases. Fungal abscesses are normally a result of infections with fungi that can start as meningitis or abscess and they primarily affect immune suppressed patients. Infections with cysticercosis are common in Latin America, Africa, Asia and some areas of Eastern Europe. Commonly, the inflammation is caused by parasites such as Taenia Solium and the pork tapeworm. The eggs of the parasites hatch in the stomach and the larvae travel through the circulatory system to the brain.
Inflammation of the brain can also be caused by bacterial meningitis. This type of infection affects the cerebrospinal fluid and spreads to the brain. It is mostly caused by Hemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitides (Meningococcus) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Brain inflammation symptoms resulted from bacterial meningitis include high fever, seizures, and severe headache, stiff in the neck and confusion or altered consciousness. Tuberculosis meningitis is a common type of meningitis among the ADIS patients. In 5% of the cases, sarcoidosis affects the meninges and it causes cranial nerve palsies, chronic meningitis and dysfunctions of the hypothalamic-pituitary gland.
Encephalitis is another common cause of brain inflammation. There are various types of encephalitis such as Lyme disease, Herpes Simplex encephalitis and post-infectious encephalitis. The most severe form of encephalitis is by far Herpes Simplex. Lyme disease is mainly caused by a spirochete called Borrelia burgdorferi which is also associated with meningitis and meningoencephalitis. It is prevalent in eastern Unites States and it is mainly transmitted by ticks.
Congenital infections normally refer to infections that are transmitted from the mother to the newborn and they may include diseases are results of Toxoplasma, Listeria, Treponema, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex type 2 infections.
The brain inflammation symptoms may vary depending on the particular underlying cause. However, as the inflammation grows, the intracranial pressure increases and results in severe headaches, confusion, dizziness, weakness and in severe cases, it may even lead to coma.
As brain inflammation is not a condition but a symptom itself, an accurate diagnosis must be established before starting a treatment plan. Treatment is given based on what caused the infection and it may be either medication or surgery. Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics and fungal infections with antifungal medication. Brain infections are medical emergencies and the patient must be given appropriate medical care, in most cases at the hospital.
Therefore, detecting the brain inflammation causes is mandatory in curing the disease and establishing an effective treatment schema.